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• High-alloy graphitic irons are used primarily for applications requiring corrosion resistance or a combination of strength and oxidation resistance. They are produced in both flake graphite (gray iron) or spheroidal graphite (ductile iron). Figure 2 classifies cast irons according to their com-mercial names applications and structures.

Effect of Graphite Nodularity on Mechanical Properties of Ductile Iron for Waterworks Fittings and Accessories A. I. Al-Ghonamy1 M. Ramadan 1 2 N. Fathy3 K. M. Hafez and A. A. El-Wakil1 4 Abstract— Waterworks fittings and accessories are important applications for ductile irons. Although in the design of these

industrial applications of ductile irons. Recent efforts 10 have been to use ductile irons in components for which fracture toughness is a concern e.g turbine casings and automotive components. Many theories have been proposed 11 12 13 14 to describe how spheroidal graphite nucleates in ductile

GRAPHITE STRUCTURES IN CAST IRONS GRAPHITE FORMS Diagrammatic representations of the standard graphite forms in cast irons EXPLODED GRAPHITE Caused by high purity charge materials Elkem manufactures and markets a range of high quality nodularising alloys to produce ductile and compacted graphite cast irons.

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Rare earths are associated with carbide promotion in thin section work chunky and exploded graphite defects in nodular production. Rare earth additions should not be employed when producing high Nickel containing cast irons (Ni-Resist) due to risk of chunk graphite. The choice of

Common Defects in Ductile Cast Iron Common Metallurgical Defects in Ductile Cast Iron Exploded graphite is normally found in thicker section castings with slow cooling rates or at very high carbon equivalent levels. inoculation requirements are heavier than for grey irons and under-inoculation or the use of the wrong inoculant are

Mechanical Properties of Thin Wall Ductile Iron-Influence of Carbon Equivalent and Graphite Distribution. The results show that irons having carbon equivalent values greater than 4.6 exhibit a marked tendency to develop exploded graphite shapes and agglomeration of graphite nodules. As a result these irons show scattered values of

Graphite Structures in Cast IronsELKEM

irons and metals but since some of these defects are more complex in ductile iron some Type V is exploded graphite. A minimum of 80 nodular graphite shapes I Fig. 2A shows the microstructure of a completely ferritic ductile iron with black graphite nodules in a white ferrite matrix with no pearlite. Fig. 2B shows a pearlitic grade with

Mechanical Properties of Thin Wall Ductile Iron-Influence of Carbon Equivalent and Graphite Distribution. The results show that irons having carbon equivalent values greater than 4.6 exhibit a marked tendency to develop exploded graphite shapes and agglomeration of graphite nodules. As a result these irons show scattered values of

Graphite Cast Irons Tohru Nobuki1 Minoru Hatate1 Toshio Shiota2 1Faculty of Engineering Kindai University Hiroshima Japan 2Kindai University Higashiosaka Japan Abstract This study aims to clarify the influence of external notch on impact characte-ristics of high toughness ductile cast irons prepared by austempering heat treatment.

that of steel with the graphite spheroids exerting only a minor influence on the mechanical properties in contrast to the effect of graphite flakes in gray iron. The matrix structure then has the greatest effect on the properties of the iron. Ductile irons are therefore a family of alloys which

The analysis and description of the graphite morphology in ductile cast iron specifically include graphite content nodule count particles sizes form classification and nodularity. While shape VI ASTM shows an example of exploded graphite Microstructure of cast irons—part 1 graphite classification by visual analysis (ISO 945-1

Jan 10 2016 · Cast irons and their Classification A high graphitization potential results in irons with graphite as the rich carbon phase while a low graphitization potential result in irons with iron carbide. Now a days malleable cast irons have been replaced by the more economically produced ductile irons cast for many uses. Malleable cast irons

Ductile iron is a type of cast iron with nodular graphite inclusions that is less brittle than most cast irons. It was invented by Keith Millis in 1943. Asked in Science

A Possible Mechanism for the Formation of Exploded Graphite in Nodular Cast Irons Article (PDF Available) in Materials Science Forum 790-791 · May 2014 with 408 Reads How we measure reads

Jan 07 2017 · The causes of chunky graphite are exactly the same as for exploded graphite with the addition that the defect is also found in thinner casting sections and is not as sensitive to the carbon

Microstructure influence on fatigue crack propagation resistance in five different ductile cast irons(DCI) was investigated. Four ferrite/pearlite volume fractions were considered performing

content of ductile irons Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 33/2 (2009) 150-158. 1. Introduction Ductile cast iron has a short and important history because was not developed until 1948. In the last three decades the ductile cast iron production (also known as Nodular iron) has been increased.

Apr 27 2015 · 18 Ductile (Nodular) Cast Ironssummary THE MICRISTRUCTURE OF DUCTILE CAST IRON • Typical Uses Valves pump bodies gears crankshafts and other machine components. • Ductile cast iron which is sometimes called nodular or spheroidal graphite cast iron. It gets this name because its carbon is in the shape of small spheres not flakes.

Jun 10 2015 · Pearlitic ductile iron can be heat treated to form martensite as shown in Figure 15. Manufacture of ductile iron is challenging and at times the degree of nodularity can be lower than desired. Figure 16 shows an example of "exploded" graphite nodules an undesirable condition.

Microstructure influence on fatigue crack propagation resistance in five different ductile cast irons(DCI) was investigated. Four ferrite/pearlite volume fractions were considered performing

Ductile iron contains 3.2-3.6 carbon. Now other cast irons also contain graphite. It is the round tube shape of the carbon that adds the important "spherical" to the name making ductile iron one of the most popular irons to pour in a foundry.

exploded graphite in ductile ironsanreximin. in Ductile and Compacted Graphite Cast Irons as The inoculants were all in granular form Ductile iron production castings Two specific types or forms of compacted . 24/7 Online Technical DataDuctile Cast Iron.

Study of microstructure of thick wall ductile iron castings S.K. SW AIN and S. SEN STUDY OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF THICK WALL DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS Plane1 Plane-2 Low nodule count and exploded graphite

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Graphite Structures in Cast IronsELKEM

The final as-cast microstructure depends upon the combination of section size alloy content and processing history. Measurements made on the plane of polish to characterize the graphite in ductile irons include determining the nodule count and the percentage nodularity.

Ductile iron is not a single material but part of a group of materials which can be produced with a wide range of properties through control of their micro-structure. The common defining characteristic of this group of materials is the shape of the graphite. In ductile irons graphite is in the form of nodules rather than flakes as in gray iron.

Mechanism for the Formation of Exploded Graphite in Nodular Cast Irons. (2014) Materials Science Forum 790-791. pp. 435-440. ISSN 0255-5476 Open Archive Toulouse Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers and makes it freely available over the web where possible.

May 25 2018 · The key difference between steel and graphite irons is that steel has low carbon content whereas graphite irons contain high carbon content.Steel is a metal alloy that has iron carbon and some other elements mixed with each other while graphite iron is an iron alloy that has graphite

Ductile iron contains 3.2-3.6 carbon. Now other cast irons also contain graphite. It is the round tube shape of the carbon that adds the important "spherical" to the name making ductile iron one of the most popular irons to pour in a foundry.

Processing Techniques and Productions of Ductile Iron A Review J.O. Olawale S.A. Ibitoye K.M. Oluwasegun Abstract—Ductile cast irons are materials having strength impact toughness and ductility comparable to those of many grades of steel while exceeding by far those of standard gray irons.

A Possible Mechanism for the Formation of Exploded Graphite in Nodular Cast Irons Article (PDF Available) in Materials Science Forum 790-791 · May 2014 with 408 Reads How we measure reads

It is also said to cause "inverse chill." "Inverse chill" is a phenomenon where carbides form in the center of the section instead of the edge. High magnesium contents are also blamed for causing "exploded graphite." ("Exploded graphite" is a detrimental graphite form that weakens the strength of ductile